12 Major Branches of Economics: A Student Should Know

Economics is a broad subject. It is necessary for our daily life. As an economic student, you already knew that economics helps us examine the past, present, and future and branches of economics. 

Economics is an optimal distribution of resources in society. Within economics, several different branches of economics focus on various aspects. 

Thus, in this blog, I will be going to mention the significant branches of Economics.

But, initially, we discuss a concise overview of Economics.

What is Economics?

It is a social science. This involved the composition, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It examines how individuals, businesses, and governments make choices about how to divide resources. 

Economics has two major types:

  • Microeconomics: It focuses on the behavior of individual consumers and producers.
  • Macroeconomics: It examines overall economics on a regional, national and international level.

So, let’s start discussing the significant branches of economics.

Branches Of Economics

The major branches of economics are as follows:

1.Behavioral Economics

Behavioral Economics takes the opinions made by the main economic theories. In this category of economics, people are no longer rational beings. They make optimal decisions based on complete information. Instead of this, they are emotional people. They make inconsistent decisions, and mistakes depend on a variety of factors.

2.Development Economics

This branch focuses on improving the unique economic situation of a developing country. The refined countries have many aspects of their economies and general forms of life. These aspects are literacy, methods of government, mortality rate, trade, etc. 

Through this economics, the development path can be smoother. And lead to improvement in quality of life.

3.Environmental Economics

During climate change, the first concern is that of the environment. Nowadays, a growing problem places on external costs. And also on benefits of the business or an economic system. 

4.Financial Economics

Financial Economics is a part of economics that deals with financial markets. It analysis how resources are being used. Its specific attention to economic activities keeps it apart from other branches. It also analyses how inflation, recession, prices, and other financial variables impact each other. Financial Economics is crucial in making investment decisions, identifying risks, and deciding securities and assets. 

5.Labor Economics

The labor economies are one of the most important branches of economics. It mainly focuses on labor. This enables a more inclusive understanding between workers and employers. 

Labor economics studies the labor force as an element in production. The labor force includes all of them who are employees, employers, looking for jobs, or self-employed. 

Labor economics covers the knowledge of factors. That affects several workers before, during, and after their working days. For example, childcare, education, pay and incentives, pension reforms. It also analyses how inflation, recession, prices, and other financial variables impact each other.

6.Urban Economics

Urban areas have unique qualities. It differs them from villages and low population areas. Urban economics focuses on housing, crime, resource, and the population’s public service terms. With proper urban economics, cities can grow stronger infrastructure and improve standards of living. 

7.Public Economics

Public economics is the examination of government policy. It provides a framework for the government should take part in the economic market or not. This study includes the analysis of government taxation and expenditure. 

8.Resource Economics

It examines the allocation of natural resources between uses and over time. The primary concern of resource economics is:

  • Implementing theory of economic and; 
  • Applying ways to environmental issues and problems. 

It requires detailed analysis to improve management strategies. 

9.Business Economics

It analyzes financial, organizational, market-related, and environmental problems a business faces. Business economics evaluates the factors that affect a corporation. These factors are a business organization, management, expansion, and Strategy. The kinds of business economics are:

  • Managerial Economics and;
  • Business economics for Non-profit corporations. 

10.Information Economics 

Information economics is related to the field of Microeconomics. It analyzes the significance of information in Economics. The value and volume of information in economics are immense. It reduces risk and uncertainty. It makes it possible to make accurate decisions. The study of information economics is a key for many economics fields. It including game theory, agency theory, and contract theory. 

11.International Economics

It is the study of intercommunications between diverse countries. This field is divided between the study of international trade and international finance. International trade reports and predicts the design of production, marketing, and investment across countries. International finance studies the effects of financial flow among countries.

12.Monetary Economics

The knowledge of monetary economics enables us to learn how an economy works efficiently. And how monetary policy can help the economy improve from one equilibrium state to another.


To sum up, economics covered two perspectives; Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Each one is specializing in different objects of study. It has many other branches instead of given above. Thus, I hope this blog helps you in learning about “Branches of Economics”.

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